In reply to Brad, it looks like the high cost of the HPV vaccine is, as you say, based on avoiding future healthcare costs associated with cervical cancer treatment according to this Discover magazine article from 2007:
The high price, $360 in 2007, was approved by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The age limit of 26 corresponds to the age range for taking the vaccine recommended by CDC. The even higher price for the vaccine charged to people over 26 might be associated with increased legal liability by the vaccine manufacturer as they are outside CDC's recommended age range.
I suppose the calculation of the price which considers future healthcare costs might come from a computer model as you are suggesting.
One correction I should make to my earlier post is that I said that the new Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier was launched on 26th June, whereas it would be more accurate to say that it set off on its maiden voyage (for sea trials) on that date. The launch ceremony for the ship apparently took place three years ago in July 2014.